The video Journey to the Andromeda Galaxy [4K] takes viewers on a visual adventure through the Andromeda Galaxy, exploring its history, structure, interactions with other galaxies, and the phenomena occurring within it. From discussions about its discovery and distance to its similarities and interactions with the Milky Way to its globular clusters and supermassive black hole, the video provides a detailed and awe-inspiring look into one of the closest galaxies to our own. Through stunning high-resolution footage and captivating music, the video showcases the beauty and vastness of the cosmos, leaving viewers in awe of the wonders of the universe.
- 00:10:00 In this section, we learn about the structural similarities between the Milky Way and our neighboring galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). Andromeda is believed to have formed around 10 billion years ago and has been growing by consuming other galaxies ever since. Its vast structure extends to about 120,000 light years in diameter, similar to the Milky Way, but its full structure includes an extended disk of scattered stars that gives it a maximum extension of about 220,000 light years. With more than a trillion stars, Andromeda’s stellar population greatly outnumbers the Milky Way. As we journey beyond the Milky Way’s starlight and satellite galaxies, we enter intergalactic space, where the number of atoms per cubic meter drops to just 10. However, this space is not completely empty, as it contains ill-fated stars and planetary systems ejected from their galaxies and frozen solid in cold and lonely conditions. Approaching Andromeda, we encounter its enormous galactic atmosphere, a diffuse halo of plasma with a radius of 1.3 million light years. Within this atmosphere, we find Andromeda’s satellite galaxies, which offer clues about its violent past and the formation of its elongated structure and galactic halo.
- 00:15:00 This section of the “Journey to the Andromeda Galaxy [4K]” video discusses the Andromeda Galaxy, also known as M31, its structure, and its interactions with other galaxies. The Andromeda Galaxy is a barred spiral galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its center, which is more than a million times the mass of the sun. The large size of the black hole suggests that the galaxy may have been larger in the past. M32, another spiral galaxy in the Andromeda system, was once its own galaxy but was absorbed by Andromeda and is now a smaller, dense elliptical galaxy bound to the black hole. Scientists have also detected faint dusty metal-rich lanes within Andromeda’s halo, thought to be made up of stars stripped from satellite galaxies as they came within reach of Andromeda. The video also discusses the interaction between the Triangulum Galaxy (M33) and Andromeda, which is a dwarf spiral galaxy around 60,000 light years in diameter.
- 00:20:00 In this section of the video, the narrator discusses the globular clusters in the Andromeda Galaxy. The most significant of these clusters is Male 2, which is the most massive known globular cluster in Andromeda. The cluster contains several million luminous stars of varying ages and metallicities, suggesting that it may not be a true globular cluster and may be the disrupted heart of a proto-galaxy. The outer layers of Male 2 were stripped away and dissolved into the fields of Andromeda, but its galactic core managed to remain bound by its central intermediate-mass black hole of 20,000 solar masses. Despite the odds, scientists detected evidence of a planet within Andromeda in 1999 using a microlensing event, but this signal was likely not due to an exoplanet as microlensing events often occur due to unpredictable chance alignments. The Andromeda Galaxy is located 2.5 million light-years away from ours and is estimated to be home to billions of planets orbiting its stars. Additionally, the Andromeda Galaxy has its own supermassive black hole, estimated to be more than 100 million times the mass of the sun. This black hole is the most significant feature of the double nucleus structure at the center of Andromeda, with the supermassive black hole significantly more massive than the central supermassive black hole in our galaxy, the Milky Way.
- 00:25:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the phenomena of blueshift and redshift, their effects on the spectrum of light, and how they are used to determine the distance of galaxies in space. As an example, the speaker mentions the Andromeda galaxy, which has a blueish tint due to the motion of the Milky Way. They also mention that, while they may not be able to directly travel to Andromeda, it is moving towards the Milky Way and will eventually collide with it. The two galaxies will also merge at their centers, causing a significant impact on their spiral structures. The speaker also discusses the fate of other celestial bodies in the solar system and how the merger will transform the sky and our understanding of the universe.
- 00:30:00 In this section, the speaker explains the process of merging two supermassive black holes and their effects on the surrounding galaxy. When two black holes collide, their orbits begin to decay as they use their dynamic energy to catapult stars out of their way. These black holes will lose energy in the form of gravitational waves when they come within one light-year of each other, causing immense tidal ripples that will be felt for billions of light-years across space. Eventually, the two black holes will merge at the center, creating a new supermassive black hole that binds the heart of the new galaxy. After this, the final phase of the local group’s evolution will commence, with a new supergiant elliptical galaxy named Milcomodo taking shape. This is a commonplace process throughout the universe, and it has played an important role in forming rich diverse spiral galaxies suitable for habitable worlds like our own. However, the elliptical galaxy will eventually stagnate and start to die out. It will take tens of quadrillions of years for the last star to fade away, leaving behind a dark and dimmer galaxy.
- 00:35:00 In this section of the “Journey to the Andromeda Galaxy” video, the viewer is transported to a stunning, vast, and open space filled with stars and planets. The camera pans over a beautiful sequence of nebulae, galaxies, and supernovae, all set to a mesmerizing music track. The footage is high-resolution and captures the cosmos in all its glory. The viewer is even more amazed by the sparkling, massive stars, some of which are much larger than the Earth. The video then takes a close-up of a nearby planet, which is also being orbited by a satellite that appears to be emitting a beacon. The stars, galaxies, and planets all have such a unique and beautiful aesthetic that it is hard not to be in awe of them. Overall, this section is a truly breathtaking representation of the universe and its infinite possibilities.