In this video, the speaker discusses some of the most unusual planets ever discovered, including Kepler-413b, HD 10606B, and Kepler-36b. These planets have unique features such as being located near a binary star, having extreme temperatures and hurricanes, and undergoing critical mutual approaches. The speaker discusses the potential effects of these planets on their surroundings and considers the possibility of Kepler-413b being a thonian planet. Lastly, the video describes the second planetary disk of a brown dwarf, which has a massive black hole at its center and several exomoines. The unstable nature of the structures in the debris disk makes it an enchanting site but also unpredictable.
- 00:00:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the mysterious planet Kepler-413b, which was discovered in 2009. Despite initially appearing to be a standard exoplanet, further observations revealed that it had a highly unusual orbit. Kepler-413b is located near a binary star and is only 0.36 astronomical units from the system’s common mass center, causing its trajectory to be constantly affected by gravitational perturbations. As a result, the object orbits in a cyclic oscillation, making it disappear and reappear in cycles of about 11 years. The speaker notes that discoveries like this challenge our understanding of the universe and require special attention.
- 00:05:00 In this section of the video, the host discusses some of the most anomalous planets ever discovered. One such planet is HD 10606B, located 190 light years from Earth. This gas giant is about four times the mass of Jupiter and has a temperature that can double within six hours as it gets closer to its star. The extreme changes in temperature result in violent hurricanes that can reach speeds of up to 5 kilometers per second. The planet’s atmosphere expands so fast that it produces shock waves capable of sweeping across the entire planet multiple times. Additionally, water vapor is broken down into oxygen and quartz crystals evaporate without a trace, later recondensing into gigantic sand clouds. Another planet discussed is Kepler-36b, located 1530 light years from Earth. This planet has a yellow subgiant star and is orbited by a rocky super Earth and a hot mini Neptune. Every 97 days, these two planets mutually approach at a critical distance of only 1.9 million kilometers, causing global cataclysms. However, after a few days, they diverge again.
- 00:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the unusual planets that have been discovered and their potential effects on their surroundings. One such planet, Kepler-36b, has a temperature of 980 Kelvin and its outer radius is 1.5 times that of Earth. The possibility of it being a thonian planet, core of a gas giant that has lost its atmosphere, is considered. Its supercritical fluid and tremendous cataclysms may result in the creation of debris and an unpredictable evolution. The speaker also mentions celestial bodies such as Kepler-36c, Super Saturn, and a young brown dwarf or gas giant that is expected to potentially capture and alter orbits, leading to a chaotic and unpredictable evolution.
- 00:15:00 In this section, the narrator describes the second planetary disk of a brown dwarf, which has a massive black hole at its center. This disk also contains several exomoines (exoplanets orbiting the black hole) and a debris disk made up of small rocky bodies. One of the exomoines is so massive that it can clear its orbit of debris, forming a wide rupture in the debris disk. The total number of exomoines in the system, including large ones, is estimated to be several hundred. The narrator also mentions that the temperature of the celestial body in the debris disk could approach comfortable values, making it an enchanting site. However, the structures are unstable and are known to change their appearance quickly. The accompanying text explains the physics behind thedisk and its celestial bodies, while the audio has music and dance.